With about 130 years of history, the Ichthyological Collection of MZUSP currently includes more than 130,000 lots and 1.5 million specimens, of which 5,000 are type specimens. The collection occupies an area of approximately 700 m² and includes representatives of more than 9,000 species, 1,800 genera and 350 families of fish. About 80% of the lots are freshwater fish, mainly from Brazil. The collection receives about 85 visiting researchers per year and sends large quantities of material to other institutions (about 120 invoices/year and a total of 12,000 lots currently on loan to other institutions). These numbers make the Ichthyological Collection of MZUSP the largest in Latin America and one of the most important in the world for the study of Neotropical fish.